At the end of 1807, Spanish and Napoleonic forces threatened the security of continental Portugal, causing Prince Regent João, in the name of Queen Maria I, to transfer the royal court from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. There they established some of the first financial institutions in Brazil, such as the local stock exchanges, and their National Bank, in addition to ending the Portuguese monopoly on Brazilian trade and opening Brazil to other nations. In 1809, in reprisal for being forced into exile, the Prince Regent ordered the Portuguese conquest of French Guiana.
With the end of the Peninsular War in 1814, the courts of Europe demanded that Queen Maria I and Prince Regent João return to Portugal, considering that it was not fit for the head of an old European monarchy to reside in a colony. In 1815, to justify the continuity of life in Brazil, where the royal court had prospered during the previous six years, the Crown established the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve, thus creating a transatlantic multi-continental monarchical state. However, such a stratagem did not last long, as the leadership in Portugal, resented by the new status of its largest colony, continued to require the return of the courts to Lisbon (as the Liberal Revolution of 1820 posits).), And also groups of Brazilians, impatient for practical and real changes, still demanded independence and a republic, as the revolt of Pernambucan in 1817 demonstrated. In 1821, as a demand of the revolutionaries who had taken the city of Oporto, D. João VI could not take it anymore and left for Lisbon. There he made an oath to the new constitution, leaving his son, Prince Pedro de Alcántara, as regent of the Kingdom of Brazil.
The tensions between Portuguese and Brazilians increased, and the Portuguese Cortes, guided by the new political regime imposed by the Liberal Revolution of 1820, tried to re-establish Brazil as a colony. The Brazilians refused to yield, and Prince Pedro decided to accompany them, declaring the independence of the country of Portugal on September 7, 1822. A month later, Prince Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil, with the royal title of Dom Pedro I, resulting in the foundation of the Empire of Brazil.
The War of Independence of Brazil, which had already begun throughout this process, spread through the northern, northeastern regions and the province of Cisplatina. The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on March 8, 1824; Portugal officially recognized Brazil on August 29, 1825.
On April 7, 1831, worn out by years of administrative turmoil and political strife with both liberal and conservative sides of politics, including an attempt at republican secession, and without reconciling with the way absolutists in Portugal had given in the succession of King Juan VI, Pedro I went to Portugal to claim the crown of his daughter, renouncing the Brazilian throne in favor of his son and heir of five years (who thus became the second monarch of the Empire, with the royal title of Dom Pedro II).
As the new Emperor could not exercise his constitutional powers until he came of age, the National Assembly established a regency. In the absence of a charismatic figure who could represent a moderate face of power, during this period a series of localized rebellions took place, such as the Cabanagem in the province of Grão-Pará, the Malê revolt in Salvador de Bahía, the Balaiada. (Maranhão), Sabinada (Bahia) and the War of Ragamuffin that begins in Rio Grande do Sul and supported by Giuseppe Garibaldi. These arose from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, together with the latent and ancient social tensions of a vast state of slavery and a newly independent nation. This period of internal political and social upheaval, which included the revolt of Praieira in Pernambuco, was surpassed only at the end of the 1840s, years after the end of the regency, which occurred with the premature coronation of Pedro II in 1841.
During the last phase of the monarchy, the internal political debate focused on the issue of slavery. The slave trade in the Atlantic was abandoned in 1850 as a result of the Aberdeen British Law, but only in May 1888, after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country, it was the institution. Formally abolished.
Foreign affairs in the monarchy were basically related to problems with the countries of the Southern Cone with which Brazil had borders. Long after the Cisplatin War that led to the independence of Uruguay, Brazil won three international wars during Pedro II’s 58-year reign. These were the war of Platine, the war in Uruguay and the devastating war in Paraguay, the greatest war effort in the history of Brazil.
Although there was no desire among most Brazilians to change the country’s form of government, on November 15, 1889, in attrition with the majority of official officers, as well as with the rural and financial elites (for different reasons), the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup. November 15 is now Republic Day, a national holiday.