The judiciary is an autonomous body of the Republic of Peru constituted by a hierarchical organization of institutions that exercise Jurisdiction, which in theory emanates from the people, but is not elected directly or indirectly. At the time of Independence, José de San Martín created the “Chamber of Appeals”, by decree of February 12, 1821, with a jurisdiction that reached the territories of the current departments of Cajamarca, Piura, Lambayeque, Amazonas, then known as Chachapoyas and Huamachuco, which was then known as the current province of Sánchez Carrión, based in the city of Trujillo, with the aim of replacing the Royal Court.
The judiciary is headed by the president of the Supreme Court of Justice who has jurisdiction throughout the territory. The second hierarchical level is formed by the Superior Courts of Justice with competence in a whole Judicial District. The third level is formed by the Courts of First Instance whose competence is, approximately, provincial. Then there are the Courts of Peace Lawyers, with district competence. And finally, the Courts of Peace (non-lawyers), in charge of resolving simple judicial matters.
Armed forces and security
The defense of the country is in charge of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Peru, which, according to Article 165 of the National Constitution, have as their primary purpose to guarantee the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic. they are under the authority of the President of the Republic through the Ministry of Defense and coordinated by the Joint Command of the Armed Forces.
The Joint Command has subordinates to the Operational Commands and Special Commands, with which it carries out the military operations that are required for the defense and fulfillment of the tasks that the executive power disposes. The armed forces are composed by the Air Force, the Army and Navy, the last two being the oldest components of the Armed Forces.
The Army is made up of the Chief of Staff, two Control Bodies, two Support Bodies, five Military Regions and six Comandancias. Until the year 2001, had 120 658 members, in addition to 26 570 reservists. The Air Force was officially created on May 20, 1929 with the name of Aviation Corps of Peru. Its main function is the air defense of the country, in addition, it participates in campaigns of social support to populations of difficult access, it organizes air bridges in case of disasters and participates in international peace missions. It has four aerial wings located in the cities of Piura, Callao, Arequipa and Iquitos.
The Navy is in charge of the maritime, fluvial and lacustrine defense of the country. It is composed of 26,000 seafarers, the naval personnel is divided into three strata: senior staff, junior staff and seafaring personnel. The National Police is considered within the armed forces although in reality it is a different organization with a different civil mission, however, its performance and preparation based on more than two decades of narcoterrorism has given it in the case of Peru, an extremely military character, with important ground, water and air attack forces.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Foreign Ministry is the body responsible for formulating, executing and evaluating the country’s foreign policy. The Foreign Ministry administers diplomatic missions in other nations and representations before multilateral organizations. Peruvian foreign policy is based mainly on promoting the culture of peace, democracy and development, respecting the principles and norms of international law, within a framework of inter-institutional dialogue.
The country has traditionally had strong political and cultural ties with its neighboring countries, as well as with the United States, with whom it maintains diplomatic relations since the beginning of the nineteenth century with the appointment of Joel Roberts as resident agent for the Viceroyalty. United appointed its first consul in Lima, William Tudor who became the sole representative of their interests in the Peruvian territory until 1827.
Another of the states with which the Peruvian government maintains strong ties of friendship is Japan. Political relations with this nation began on August 21, 1873 with the signing of the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Trade and Navigation, thus Peru became the first country in Latin America to establish diplomatic relations with the Japanese. During the Second World War, the country was on the side of the allies, declared war on Germany and allowed the United States to build an airport in the city of Talara.
Peru is a member state of the United Nations Organization since October 31, 1945. It has been part of its Security Council on five occasions: in the periods 1955-1956, 1973-1974, 1984-1985, 2006-2007, 2018-2019 Peruvian lawyer and diplomat Javier Pérez de Cuéllar was Secretary General of the United Nations between 1982 and 1991. In the field of regional integration, he is a full member of the Organization of American States, the Andean Community, Unasur and associated state of Mercosur.