Peru

Peru, is a sovereign country in western South America. The Pacific Ocean borders its coastline and borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, and Bolivia and Chile to the southeast. Its territory is made up of diverse landscapes: the valleys, the plateaus and the high summits of the Andes unfold to the west towards the desert coast and to the east towards the Amazon. It is one of the countries with the greatest biological diversity and the largest mineral resources in the world.

Ancient Peru was a region of successive civilizations since the emergence of Caral-Supe in 3200 BC. C. The Inca Empire was the last autochthonous or indigenous State, which dominated much of South America in the fifteenth century. With the next century the conquest of the Incario came, after which the territory was configured as a viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire articulated around the exploitation of silver and gold with forced labor of indigenous and African slaves in mines and haciendas. The Bourbon reforms of the eighteenth century led to various uprisings against the colonial authority, whose maximum exponent was the rebellion of Tupac Amaru II.

With the occupation of Spain and the promulgation of the constitution of 1812, ideas of political autonomy in Spanish America spread. Independence was formally proclaimed in 1821, and was settled in the battle of Ayacucho three years later.The country remained in recession and military caudillismo until the bonanza and decline of the Guano era, which culminated shortly before the War from Pacific. In the postwar period, an oligarchic policy was established that prevailed until the end of the Oncenio. The successive democratic governments were constantly interrupted by coups d’état. In 1968, a military dictatorship was imposed that introduced diverse and profound nationalist reforms. The democratic and representative government was re-established in 1980, thus a bloody conflict began. armed between the terrorist groups of Sendero Luminoso and the MRTA and the State in the southern highlands as well as the inflationary crisis at the end of the decade. In the 1990s, a neoliberal model was implemented, whose bases continue in force. At the beginning of the 21st century, the country experienced significant economic growth and poverty reduction.

Peru is considered an emerging market with a high score on the Human Development Index and a high-income economy, with its main economic activities including agriculture, mining, fishing, construction and commerce. The Peruvian culture is diverse as a result of the intense miscegenation originated in the colony. To this is added the later influence of nineteenth-century migrations from China, Japan and Europe. The main and most spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak several native languages, Southern Quechua being the most widespread, politically, the country is organized as a presidential republic with a multiparty system structured under the principles of separation. of powers and decentralization. Administratively, it is divided into twenty-four departments and the constitutional province of Callao, among its main economic activities are agriculture, mining, fishing, construction and commerce.

The Peruvian culture is diverse as a result of the intense miscegenation originated in the colony. To this is added the later influence of nineteenth-century migrations from Japan, China and Europe. The main and most spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak several native languages, Southern Quechua being the most widespread. Politically, the country is organized as a presidential republic with a multiparty system structured under the principles of separation of powers and decentralization. Administratively, it is divided into twenty-four departments and the constitutional province of Callao.