The ancient inhabitants of the Andes already had important geographical knowledge about the soil they inhabited. This knowledge was given thanks to the interaction they experienced with their environment in the production process of their means of existence. These men came to identify various ecological floors to which they gave different names. With the arrival of the Spaniards to American territory, the division made by the ancient Andean settlers imposed a new one in which the Peruvian territory was divided into three major regions: coast, sierra and jungle.
In the first decades of the twentieth century, the existence of different altitudinal regions was again raised to the interior of the country, criticizing the simplistic division given by the Spanish conquerors. Later, thanks to the efforts of different national and foreign scholars such as Pedro Paulet, José de la Riva Agüero, among others, modern geographic studies about Peru were accumulated. These studies were synthesized and exposed years later in the thesis on the Eight Natural Regions of Peru (1943) postulated by Javier Pulgar Vidal. According to Vidal, the natural regions of the country are the following, from west to east: Chala, Yunga, Quechua, Suni, Puna, Janca, Rupa-Rupa and Omagua.
The rugged relief and particular natural history of Peru has caused it to be considered one of the seventeen megadiverse countries, with a great variety of ecosystems and, consequently, flora and fauna. The country has six different terrestrial biomes in its territory, two marine biomes and three freshwater biomes. Along most of the coast extends the Pacific desert, while in the northern coast and inter-Andean valleys of the Marañón River and some tributaries, the equatorial dry forest extends, a type of ecosystem similar to a tropical savannah that comes from the convergence of Amazonian, Andean and tropical Pacific forest tributaries.
At the mouths of the Tumbes and Piura rivers the mangroves extend and, ascending to the Andes, the montane scrub biome extends. According to the World Wildlife Fund, the corresponding ecosystems are the dry puna, the humid puna and the páramo. The most widespread biome of the country (59% of the territory) as well as the most biodiverse one is to the east: the Peruvian Amazon rainforest. This is subdivided into low jungle and high jungle. The ecosystems that stand out in this region are mist forest (north of the departments of Piura and Cajamarca) and a small portion of palm savanna in the eastern end of the country, in the department of Madre de Dios. As for the Peruvian sea, two marine currents that run in the opposite direction characterize individual ecosystems.
From the latitude 6 ° S towards the north, the El Niño current appears with a temperature that oscillates between 22 ° C and 27 ° C. This collides with the Peruvian or Humboldt current with temperatures that oscillate between 13 ° C and 19 ° C. Although the two currents provide innumerable resources, it is the Humboldt current that is most important because it presents abundance of plankton and It is located in the zone of breadth of the continental shelf, which favors a greater productivity and quantity of marine resources, such is the case of anchovy and the consequent mass production of fishmeal. The national flower is the cantuta and the most representative tree of the country is the cinchona tree. In terms of fauna, the most emblematic species are the vicuna and the cock of the rocks.
In recent years the Peruvian economy has had a remarkable level of growth with respect to other economies of the world, only comparable to that of China. According to the magazine AméricaEconomía and the International Monetary Fund, the country had the second highest inflation in 2008. World’s weakest after France and therefore one of the strongest economies in the region, it has a high human development index, with a score of 0.750 in 2017 that places it at number 89 worldwide.
According to IMF estimates, per capita income is above 12,000 dollars, ranking 46th worldwide. The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean estimated that in 2012 the Peruvian economy would grow by 5%. , 9%, although its enormous dependence on the export of metals and minerals and the importation of food makes the economy very dependent on the fluctuation of prices globally.
For the next few years, lower growth is expected as well as inflationary risks due to the possible devaluation of commodity prices given the evolution of the crisis in developed countries, whose lower growth could negatively affect the economies of countries -such as Peru. – they supply their industries with raw materials, even with China as the first commercial partner, and in March 2018 the minimum wage was established at S / 930.00, equivalent to approximately US $ 290.00. It is the fourth best emerging country with the most promise for investors, according to the ranking prepared by the Bloomberg Markets magazine. Inflation in 2014 was the lowest in the region with 3.22%.
According to the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund, the country has become one of the fastest growing and most stable growth economies in Latin America On October 23, 2013, the rating agency Fitch Group raised the credit rating of the country. Peru at the BBB + level. In July 2014, the Moody’s agency also raised the country’s credit rating from Baa2 to A3 due to the expectations of the economy’s growth, the strengthening of its fiscal performance and its potential for expansion.