Language and Architecture

Language

The official language of Brazil is Portuguese, which speaks almost the entire population and is practically the only language used in newspapers, radio, television and for commercial and administrative purposes. Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, so the language is an important part of the Brazilian national identity and gives it a national culture different from that of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.

Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, mostly similar to the central and southern sixteenth-century dialects of European Portuguese, with some influences from the Amerindian and African languages, especially from West Africa and Bantu, restricted only to vocabulary. As a result, the language is somewhat different, mainly in phonology, from the language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries (the dialects of the other countries, partly due to the more recent end of Portuguese colonialism in these regions, have a closer connection with the contemporary European). Portuguese). These differences are comparable to those of American and British English.

In 1990, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which included representatives of all countries with the official language as Portuguese, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese spelling to unify the two norms then used by Brazil for a side and the remaining Portuguese-speaking countries in the other. This spelling reform came into force in Brazil on January 1, 2009. In Portugal, on July 21, 2008, the President approved the reform, which allowed an adaptation period of 6 years, during which both orthographies coexist. The remaining CPLP countries are free to establish their own transition schedules.

The law of sign language legally recognized in 2002, (the law was regulated in 2005) the use of Brazilian sign language, more commonly known by its acronym in English LIBRAS, in education and government services. The language should be taught as part of the curricula of education and speech and language pathology. Teachers, instructors and translators of LIBRAS are recognized professionals. Schools and health services must provide access (“inclusion”) to deaf people.

Minority languages ​​are spoken throughout the nation. One hundred and eighty Amerindian languages ​​are spoken in remote areas and a large number of other languages ​​are spoken by immigrants and their descendants. In the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Nheengatu (a Creole South American language currently in danger of extinction, or an “anti-criollo”, according to some linguists, with the lexicon of Brazilian languages ​​mostly indigenous and grammar based on the Portuguese who, together with his southern relative, Língua Geral São Paulo, was once an important lingua franca in Brazil, being replaced by the Portuguese only after the government ban caused by important political changes), the Baniwa and Tucano languages ​​had been granted the condition of co-official with Portuguese.

There are important communities in Germany (mostly from the Brazilian Hunsrückisch, a German high-dialect language) and Italian (mostly from the Talian, a Venetian dialect) origins in the southern and southeastern regions, whose native ancestors took long of Brazil, and which, still live there, are influenced by the Portuguese language. Talian is officially a historical heritage of Rio Grande do Sul, and two German dialects have co-official status in some municipalities.

Learning at least a second language (usually English or Spanish) is compulsory for all 12 grades of the compulsory education system (primary and secondary education, there called fundamental and Ensino means Ensino respectively). Brazil is the first country in South America to offer Esperanto to high school students.

Architecture

The architecture of Brazil is influenced by Europe, especially Portugal. It has a history dating back 500 years, when Pedro Cabral discovered Brazil in 1500. Portuguese colonial architecture was the first wave of architecture to go to Brazil. It is the basis of all Brazilian architecture of the following centuries. In the 19th century, during the era of the Brazilian Empire, Brazil followed European trends and adopted Neoclassical and Gothic Revival architecture. Then, in the 20th century, especially in Brasilia, Brazil experimented with modernist architecture.

The colonial architecture of Brazil dates from the early sixteenth century, when Brazil was explored, conquered and colonized for the first time by the Portuguese. The Portuguese built an architecture that was familiar to them in Europe in their goal of colonizing Brazil. They built a Portuguese colonial architecture that included churches, civic architecture that included houses and fortresses in Brazilian cities and the countryside. During the 19th century, Brazilian architecture saw the introduction of more European styles in Brazil, such as neoclassical and neogothic architecture. This was usually mixed with Brazilian influences from their own heritage, which produced a unique form of Brazilian architecture. In the 1950s modernist architecture was introduced when Brasilia was built as a new federal capital in the interior of Brazil to help develop the interior. The architect Oscar Niemeyer idealized and built government buildings, churches and civic buildings, built in a modernist style.