Infrastructure and Transport

Infrastructure

Technological research in Brazil is carried out largely in public universities and research institutes, and most of the funds for basic research come from various government agencies. The most esteemed technological centers in Brazil are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, the Aerospace Technical Center of the Air Force, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE.

The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant resources for the launch of vehicles and the manufacture of satellites. Owner of a relative technological sophistication, the country develops submarines and aircraft, as well as participating in space research, having a Light Vehicle Launch Center and being the only country in the Southern Hemisphere that integrates the International Space Station (ISS).

The country is also a pioneer in the search for oil in deep waters, from where it extracts 73% of its reserves. The uranium is enriched in Resende’s Nuclear Fuel Factory, mainly for research purposes (since Brazil obtains 88% of its electricity from hydroelectricity) and the country’s first nuclear submarine was delivered in 2015 (by France).

Brazil is one of three countries in Latin America with an Operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research center in physics, chemistry, science and life sciences, and Brazil is the only Latin American country that has a semiconductor company with its own manufacture. Plant, the CEITEC. According to the 2009-2010 Global Information Technology Report of the World Economic Forum, Brazil is the 61st largest developer of information technology in the world.

Brazil also has a large number of outstanding scientific personalities. Among the most renowned Brazilian inventors are priests Bartolomeu de Gusmão, Landell de Moura and Francisco João de Azevedo, plus Alberto Santos-Dumont, Evaristo Conrado Engelberg, Manuel Dias de Abreu, Andreas Pavel and Nélio José Nicolai.

Brazilian science is represented by César Lattes (Brazilian physicist Pathfinder of Pi Meson), Mário Schenberg (considered the best theoretical physicist in Brazil), José Leite Lopes (the only Brazilian physicist who holds the UNESCO Scientific Prize), Artur Ávila (the first Latin American winner of the Fields Medal) and Fritz Müller.

Transport

Brazilian roads are the main carriers of cargo and passenger traffic. The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million miles) in 2002. The total paved roads increased from 35,496 km (22,056 mi) (22,056 mi) in 1967 to 184,140 km (114,419 mi) (114,425 mi) ) in 2002.

The first investments in road infrastructure were passed in the 1920s, the government of Washington Luis, which was sought in the governments of Getúlio Vargas and Eurico Gaspar Dutra. President Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-61), who designed and built the capital, Brasilia, was another supporter of the roads. Kubitschek was responsible for the installation of the main automobile manufacturers in the country (Volkswagen, Ford and General Motors arrived in Brazil during his government) and one of the points used to attract them was the support for the construction of motorways. With the implementation of Fiat. In 1976, ending a closed circuit of automobiles, since the end of the 1990s, the country has received large foreign direct investments that install in its territory other important manufacturers of cars and public services, such as Iveco, Renault, Peugeot, Citroen, Honda, Mitsubishi, Mercedes. Benz, BMW, Hyundai, Toyota among others. Brazil is the seventh most important country in the automotive industry.

Brazil’s rail system has been declining since 1945, when the emphasis shifted to road construction. The total length of the railway was 30,875 km (19,185 mi) in 2002, compared to 31,848 km (19,789 mi) in 1970. Most of the railway system belonged to the Federal Railroad Corporation RFFSA, which was privatized in 2007. The São Paulo metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The other subway systems are located in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasilia, Teresina and Fortaleza.

The country has an extensive rail network of 28,538 kilometers (17,733 miles) in length, the tenth largest network in the world. Currently, the Brazilian government, unlike the past, seeks to promote this mode of transport; An example of this incentive is the Rio-São Paulo high-speed train project, which will connect the two main cities in the country to transport passengers.

There are around 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States. The São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport with almost 20 million passengers a year, while handling the vast majority of the country’s commercial traffic.

For the transport of cargo, waterways are important, for example, the industrial zones of Manaus can only be reached by means of the Solimões-Amazonas waterway (3,250 kilometers (2,020 miles) with a minimum depth of 6 meters (20 feet) )). The country also has 50,000 kilometers (31,000 miles) of waterways.

Coastal navigation links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have received free ports in Santos. Of the 36 deepwater ports, Santos, Itajaí, Rio Grande, Paranaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vitória, Suape, Manaus and São Francisco do Sul are the most important. Bulk carriers have to wait up to 18 days before receiving service, container ships have an average of 36.3 hours.