The country has fifty-four hydrographic basins, fifty-two of which are small coastal basins that discharge their waters into the Pacific Ocean. The other two are the Amazon basin, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean, and the endorheic basin of Lake Titicaca, both delimited by the Andes mountain range. In the second of these basins, the giant Amazon River is born which, with its 6872 km, is the longest and mightiest river in the world, with 75% of the Peruvian territory, Peru contains 4% of the fresh water of the planet.
Most Peruvian rivers drain from the Andes and to one of the three hydrographic slopes of the country. Those coming from the Andes that flow into the Pacific Ocean are short-haul, torrential and of variable regime according to the intensity of the rains that occur in the mountains. The basins that flow into the Titicaca, to then follow its path in other rivers and empty into an ocean, have characteristics very similar to those of the Pacific slope. This is the highest lake in the world and the second largest in South America.
The rivers of the Atlantic slope are also born in the Andes mountain range, until reaching the Amazon River, which in turn flows into the Atlantic Ocean. They are longer, much more plentiful and their course has a lower slope once they leave the sierra. Peru’s longest rivers are from the Amazon basin: the Ucayali, the Marañón, the Putumayo, the Yavarí, the Huallaga, the Urubamba, the Mantaro and the Amazon.The rivers that flow into Lake Titicaca are usually short and they have great flow.
Unlike other equatorial countries, Peru does not present an exclusively tropical climate; the influence of the Andes and the Humboldt current grant great climatic diversity to the Peruvian territory. The central and southern coast of the country have a subtropical arid or desert climate, with an average temperature of 18 ° C and annual rainfall of 150 mm, by action of the cold sea of Humboldt. In contrast, the north coast has a tropical arid climate, due to the tropical sea, with an average temperature above 24 ° C and rain during the summer. When there is occurrence of the El Niño phenomenon, the average temperature of all the coast rises (with maximums greater than 30 ° C) and rains increase significantly on the north and central coast. At times, waterspouts are formed in Lake Titicaca, such as occurred in 2016, and in the Andean Altiplano, tornadoes can be registered, such as the one that occurred on May 10, 2018 in La Rinconada, Puno, close to 5000 meters of altitude. height, or those that occurred in Arasi, Puno, with the presence of 2 tornadoes, in 2009. Among other places such as the presence of a small tornado in Ayacucho in 2018. In addition to the presence of whirlpools in dry areas as in parts of The Peruvian coast: On the south coast, strong winds often occur that generate dust and sand clouds, one of the largest as occurred in 2016 that could be seen from space, better known as storms of sand, in the popular jargon.
In the sierra, the following climates are observed: temperate sub-humid climate, in areas between 1000 and 3000 masl, with temperatures around 20 ° C and rainfall between 500 and 1200 mm per year; cold climate between 3000 and 4000 masl, with average annual temperatures of 12 ° C and frosts during winter; frigid or puna climate, in areas between 4000 and 5000 masl, with an average temperature of 6 ° C and annual rainfall of 700 mm; and snowy or freezing weather in areas above 5000 masl, with temperatures below 0 ° C and snowfall. In the jungle there are two types of climate: very humid semitropical climate in the high jungle, with rainfall greater than 2000 mm per year and average temperatures around 22 ° C; and the humid tropical climate in the low jungle, with rainfall ranging from 2000 mm per year and average temperatures of 27 ° C.