Peru is a unitary, representative, decentralized, presidential republic with a multiparty system. The government is structured according to the principle of separation of powers, these are the executive power, the legislative power and the judicial power. In addition, the Constitution establishes ten organizations known as “constitutionally autonomous”, with specific functions that are independent of the three branches of government. These bodies are: The Constitutional Court, the Public Prosecutor’s Office, the Ombudsman’s Office, the Office of the Comptroller General of the Republic, the National Council of Magistrates, the Super intendency of Banking, Insurance and Pension Funds, the National Elections Board, the National Electoral Processes, the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status and the Central Reserve Bank. The Peruvian government is directly elected, the vote is mandatory for all citizens between 18 and 70 years.
According to the current constitution, the President of the Republic is the head of state and the head of government, is elected every five years and cannot serve consecutive terms The President appoints the Council of Ministers, which is composed of the heads of the sectoral portfolios, and by a President of the Council, who may occupy a sectoral portfolio or only serve in the presidential office.
The President of the Republic is the head of the executive power, and does not share this prerogative with the President of the Council of Ministers or any other authority. The President has no political responsibility over his government decisions. In the Head of State resides exclusively the national defense, carried out by the Armed Forces. To coordinate its actions, the country is subdivided into twenty-four departments and a constitutional province. The current head of state and government is Martín Vizcarra Cornejo.
The Council of Ministers is the body responsible for the direction and management of public services of the State, chaired by the President of the Council of Ministers, a position appointed by the President of the Republic and is made up of each of the Ministers of State , who are in charge of the sectoral government portfolios. The President of the Council of Ministers may or may not have a portfolio under his charge and its fundamental function is to endorse the acts of the other ministers and represent the Council of Ministers in front of the Congress. In addition, he is the official spokesman of the government in front of society.
In the country, the position of President of the Council of Ministers is often referred to colloquially as “Prime Minister” or “Premier”, in an indistinct manner, although their functions differ clearly from those of a prime minister, since he has no political decision-making capacity in the absence of the approval of the President of the Republic The sessions of the Council of Ministers are also chaired by the President of the Republic. Ministers of State have political responsibility for their government decisions, while the President of the Council of Ministers has responsibility for each of the decisions of the entire ministerial cabinet. The current President of the Council of Ministers is César Villanueva.
The legislative power of the Peruvian state resides in the Congress of the Republic, which is unicameral and consists of 130 members elected for a term of five years. The bills can be proposed by the executive or legislative power; they become law after being approved by Congress and promulgated by the President.
Currently, the Congress is composed of Fuerza Popular, Peruvians Por el Kambio, Frente Amplio, Nuevo Peru, Alliance for Progress, Popular Action, Aprista Party and the Non-Grouped. The power to interpret the Constitution in specific matters resides in the Constitutional Court, which is composed of seven members elected by the Congress of the Republic for a period of five years too. The current President of the Congress of the Republic is Daniel Salaverry.