Foreign direct investment

During 2012, the entrance of foreign investment in the country registered a high growth rate, with a variation of 49% with respect to the previous year. With a foreign investment income of 12.22 billion dollars equivalent to 5.9% of its GDP, the country was the fifth recipient in Latin America, after Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, replicating the pattern of In recent years, the reinvestment of profits (8,263 million dollars) was the predominant component of investment in 2012, followed by capital contributions (4637 million dollars), while the flow of loans from parent companies was slightly negative.

The high profitability of foreign investment of companies in Peru, mainly in mining, explains these processes in which a considerable part of the expansion of productive capacity is financed by reinvesting profits. There are no official data on the distribution of investment by destination sectors, however, several reports allow estimating that the mining sector would be the main recipient, followed by the expansion of the electricity and communications infrastructure and the financial sector. According to the Ministry of Energy and Mines, investments in the sector, the vast majority related to foreign companies, would have reached 8549 million dollars in 2012.

In 2017, Peru was the fourth country with the most reception of foreign direct investment in Latin America, reaching 6769 million dollars, surpassing countries such as Chile, Bolivia or Uruguay.

International reserves

Up to June 2017, Peru’s net international reserves amounted to 63 256 million dollars, while in 2010, the country ranked sixth in Latin America and 53rd in terms of official gold reserves. world, with 34.7 tons, the equivalent of 4% of its international reserves.

Tourism

Tourism is the third largest industry in the nation, behind fishing and mining, tourism is mainly directed towards archaeological monuments, since it has more than one hundred thousand archaeological sites. According to a study by the Peruvian government, the satisfaction rate of tourists after visiting Peru is 94%. It is the fastest growing industry in the country, it grew annually at a rate of 25% in the last five years, with the growth rate being higher than any other country in South America.

Tourism has an impact of 7% of GDP in Peru, is regulated and stimulated by the Commission for the Promotion of Peru for Export and Tourism of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism. The most popular countries of origin of tourists are Chile, the United States, Ecuador, Colombia, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Mexico, Venezuela, the United Kingdom and China. Tourism employs 11% of the economically active population of the country (484 000 direct jobs and 340,000 indirect jobs), mostly in the hotel and transport sectors.

The most visited places by tourists are the cities of Lima and its historic center, Cuzco which is characterized by its Inca and colonial architecture but its main attractions are the Sacred Valley of the Incas and Machu Picchu, Arequipa by the historic center, also by the Colca Valley and finally Puno on Lake Titicaca.256 The main tourist circuit in the country is the southern circuit, which includes cities such as; Ica, Nazca, Pisco, Paracas, Arequipa, Chivay, Puno, Cuzco, Ayacucho and Puerto Maldonado, with architectural, cultural and natural attractions. The second most important route is the Callejón de Huaylas, in the department of Áncash, the seat of adventure tourism and the main point of reference for Novoandina cuisine.

Peru has many other tourist routes. Among these are those of the Mantaro river valley, with the city of Huancayo as one of its axes, and the Tarma Valley as another axis that in turn is the entrance to the central jungle. The south-central coast (department of Ica and province of Cañete) and the northern city of Trujillo where Chan Chan is the largest adobe citadel in the world, the traditional resort of Huanchaco and the Huacas del Sol and Luna belonging to the Chimu culture. According to the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism, the visit of foreign tourists increased by 7% during 2015 and would have generated US $ 3.5 billion in foreign currency for the country.