Demography and Race

The population of Brazil, as registered by the PNAD of 2008, was approximately 190 million (22.31 inhabitants per square kilometer or 57.8 / sq mi), with a ratio of men to women of 0.95: 1 and 83.75% of the defined population as urban. The population is very concentrated in the regions of the Southeast (79.8 million inhabitants) and the Northeast (53.5 million inhabitants), while the two most extensive regions, Center-West and North, which together constitute the 64, 12% of the Brazilian territory., they have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants.

The first census in Brazil was carried out in 1872 and registered a population of 9,930,478. From 1880 to 1930, 4 million Europeans arrived. The population of Brazil increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, due to a decrease in the mortality rate, despite the fact that the birth rate experienced a slight decrease. In the 1940s, the annual rate of population growth was 2.4%, with an increase of 3.0% in the 1950s and 2.9% in the 1960s, as hope life increased from 44 to 54 years and from 72.6 years in 2007. Since the 1960s, it has declined steadily, from 3.04% per year between 1950 and 1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative value of -0.29% by 2050, thus completing the demographic transition.

In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 11.48% and among young people (15 to 19 years old) 1.74%. It was highest (20.30%) in the Northeast, which had a large proportion of rural poor. Illiteracy was high (24.18%) among the rural population and lower (9.05%) among the urban population.

Race and ethnicity

According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population (about 92 million) were described as white; 43.80% (approximately 83 million) as Brown (brown), 6.84% (approximately 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (around 1.1 million) as Asian; and 0.28% (around 536 thousand) as Amerindio (officially called indigenous, Indigenous), while 0.07% (around 130 thousand) did not declare their race.

In 2007, the National Foundation of the Indians estimated that Brazil has 67 uncontacted tribes, which represents an increase of 40 in 2005. It is believed that Brazil has the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world.

Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, there has been a considerable miscegenation among Amerindians, Europeans and Africans in all regions of the country (European descent is dominant throughout the country according to the vast majority of all the autosomal studies carried out that they cover the entire population, for between 65% and 77%).

Brazilian society is more markedly divided by social class lines, although a high disparity of income is found among racial groups, so racism and classism can be confused. Socially significant closeness to a racial group is more taken into account in terms of appearance (phenotypes) rather than descent, to the extent that full siblings may belong to different “racial” groups. Socioeconomic factors are also significant, because it is likely that a minority of pardos will begin to declare themselves white or black if they are socially ascending. Skin color and facial features do not match well with ancestry (Afro-Brazilians are usually mixed uniformly and European descent is dominant in whites and browns with a significant non-European contribution, but the individual variation is great).

The brown population (officially called brown in Portuguese, also colloquially brown) is a broad category that includes the caboclos (generally assimilated Amerindians and descendants of whites and natives), mulattoes (descendants mainly of whites and African-Americans). Brazilians) and cafuzos (descendants of Afro-Brazilians and natives). People of considerable Amerindian descent form the majority of the population in the northern, northeastern and central-western regions.

Greater percentages of blacks, mulattoes and triracials can be found in the east coast of the northeast region of Bahia to Paraíba and also in the north of Maranhão, south of Minas Gerais and in the east of rio de janeiro. Since the nineteenth century, Brazil opened its borders to immigration. Around five million people from more than 60 countries emigrated to Brazil between 1808 and 1972, most of them Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Polish, Jewish, Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic.