Argentina, is a sovereign country of South America, located in the extreme south and southeast of said subcontinent. It adopts the form of republican, democratic, representative and federal government.

Argentina is organized as a decentralized federal State, integrated since 1994 by a national State and 24 self-governed states, also called “first order jurisdictions”, which are 23 provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA), the latter designated as the Federal Capital of the country. Each state or jurisdiction of the first order has its own political autonomy, Constitution, flag and security body. The 23 provinces maintain all the powers not delegated to the national State and guarantee the autonomy of their municipalities.

It integrates the Mercosur -block of which it was founded in 1991-, the Union of South American Nations (Unasur), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Organization of American States (OAS).

In 2017, its Human Development Index was 0.825 and it is in the 47th position. This, adjusted for the inequality that is 0.707; It gives a Gini coefficient of 42.7. In education, it has an investment of 5.1% of GDP, with a population almost at the top of literacy.

The Argentine economy is the second most developed and important in South America. According to the World Bank, its nominal GDP is the 21st in the world, and due to its geopolitical and economic importance, it is one of the three Latin American sovereign states that is part of the so-called Group of 20 and also includes the NIC group. or new industrialized countries.

It is one of the only countries in the American continent – together with the United States and Canada – that has reached optimal levels of Research and Development in the field of science, its technological and scientific capacity has allowed it to design, produce and export satellites, build nuclear reactors and be the first software producer, among other things. It is considered a regional power.

It has provided increasing nuclear cooperation to countries in Latin America, the Maghreb, the Persian Gulf, Southeast Asia and Oceania, based on the capabilities developed by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the prestigious state company INVAP. It is the Latin American country that has won the most Nobel prizes – five in total – three of them linked to science.

With an area of ​​2,780,400 km², it is the largest Spanish-speaking country on the planet, the second largest in Latin America, and eighth in the world, if only the continental area subject to effective sovereignty is considered. Its continental shelf, recognized by the UN in 2016, reaches 6 581 500 km² becoming one of the largest in the world, extending from the American continent to the South Pole in Antarctica, through the South Atlantic. If you count the Malvinas Islands, South Georgia, the South Sandwich Islands and many other smaller islands (administered by the United Kingdom but with sovereignty in dispute), plus a portion of the Antarctic area called Argentina Antarctica south of the 60 ° S parallel, Argentina claims sovereignty, the surface is 3 761 274 km², it is one of the twenty countries that have a permanent presence in Antarctica, being the one with the most permanent bases, with six bases in total.

Argentina contemplates one of the most diverse landscapes and climates in the world and its relief can be divided into five major areas:

the Cordillera de los Andes, to the west of the country and to the south of the Island of Tierra del Fuego, being the Aconcagua (6962 m) the highest point of America;

the extensive Chacopampa plain, with few undulations and a million square kilometers, in the center-north;

the Patagonian plateau (600,000 km²) in the south;

the basin of the Silver and the Mesopotamia, this last one presents / displays a relief of esteros and lagoons, being to the northeast higher and amesetada; while towards the south it undulates forming knives and low altitude hills;

the island territories in the South Atlantic.

Its territory gathers a great diversity of climates, caused by a latitudinal amplitude that exceeds 30 ° -including several geo-astronomical zones-, a difference in altitude ranging from 0 to almost 7000 masl and the extension of the maritime coastline that reaches 4725 km. Wide humid plains limit with extensive deserts and high mountains, while the presence of tropical and subtropical climates in the north, contrast with extreme snow and cold in the cordilleran zones and the south.

Its American mainland, which covers a large part of the Southern Cone, borders Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay to the east and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Chile to the west and, in its American sector, to the south with Chile and the Atlantic waters of the Drake Passage.

The first records of settlers in the current Argentine territory date back to the Palaeolithic period. Spanish colonization began in 1512. Argentina emerged as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, an entity of the Spanish Empire founded in 1776. On May 25, 1810, it achieved de facto independence when the last Spanish viceroy who ruled was deposed from Buenos Aires, organizing the First Governing Board. On July 9, 1816, independence was proclaimed formally in San Miguel de Tucumán.